WORKING PAPER SERIES
Exploring the gendered effects on the COVID-19 pandemic on Academic Staff in Tanzania
The outbreak of the COVID-19 Pandemic marked a serious interruption in all sectors and on all communities during 2020. In an effort to protect human health and well being, governments throughout the world took extraordinary actions, for a temporary period of time, by closing public spaces and advising populations to stay at home until the threat had passed and the dynamics of the disease could be understood and controlled. Like other spaces, university life was severely disrupted; teaching was either suspended or, in some cases, moved on-line; the core activities of academics in areas of research and consultancy were interrupted. Evidence quickly began to emerge of the differential gendered experiences of these disruptions, with indications that female publication rates stalled or declined, which males held steady or increased during this period. There are suggestions that academic career level also seemed to interact with these gendered effects, with younger academics and early career researchers more severely effected by these disruptions than older, more establish, colleagues. However, due to the early stage of the pandemic, robust social scientific research is limited and anecdotal. This paper will examine this phenomenon and provide insights on the lived experiences of this Pandemic in Tanzania. Utilizing a feminist relational framework to unpack interacting power systems and dynamics, it explores the gendered effects of the pandemic on academic staff. Through qualitative research methods of interview and discourse analysis, it examines the lived experiences of academics, around three themes – a) caring and coping during the COVID crises; b) work-life balance; c) impact to research and academic duties. The findings provide insights into the gendered effects of a public health crisis in the context of Tanzanian Higher Learning Institutions.
Key words: Gender; Higher Education; COVID-19; Feminist Relational Theory; Tanzania
Authors: Dr Perpetua Urio, University of Dar es Salaam College of Education, Faculty of Education, Tanzania
Dr Susan P. Murphy, Trinity College Dublin, School of Natural Sciences (Geography), Ireland
Methodological transformations – Participatory Action Research as a driver of epistemic inclusion and social change.
Authors: Dr Immanuel Darkwa, Trinity College Dublin Co-Authors: Dr Susan Murphy, Trinity College, Dublin; Dr. Perpetua John Urio, University of Dar es Salaam College of Education; Dr. Consolata Chua, University of Dar es Salaam College of Education; Dr Ikupa Moses, University of Dar es Salaam College of Education.
This paper provides an overview of the feminist participatory action research methodological approach used in a collaborative project between institutions of higher education in Tanzania and Ireland as they work together to identify the opportunities and barriers to gender equality and female empowerment in higher education, and avenues to transformative social change in gender relations. As a social construct, gender is contextually situated, produced and reproduced in specific spaces and through a range of specific activities and processes. It is also relational, embedded in personal and professional relationships. Thus, the feminist PAR approach was designed to enable the development of a situation-sensitive research design and data collection; it facilitated the elaboration of epistemically inclusive, context relevant, data-informed institutional policies; and the design and implementation of inclusive educational initiatives for the staff and students. However, the paper finds that as understandings of gender within institutions of higher education are embedded in specific spatial, historical, social, economic, and cultural systems imbued in pre-existing norms, values and beliefs, the process of institutionalising gender equality and driving transformative social change can be deeply influenced and constrained by these factors. Pointing to the tensions between radical particularism and universal values of equality and inclusion, this paper shares methodological insights into the challenges and possibilities when seeking to design and implement projects that can move from technical practices of mainstreaming gender considerations in policy formation, to transformative practices in gender relations, by employing a feminist participatory action research approach to create awareness and induce transformation that influences the lived experiences of the university community.
Keywords: Gender, awareness, transformation, social change, participatory action research, feminist theory, inclusion,
Examining students’ engagement and voices in gender equality and female empowerment initiatives: Case study of a higher education institution in Tanzania
This paper explores the opportunities for and barriers to student engagement in gender equality and female empowerment activities in higher education institutions. As future leaders, student voices represent an important contribution in the pursuit of gender transformative relations. The findings presented rest upon an empirical case study of a University in Tanzania. Data was collected through repeated focus groups and interviews between 2014-2018, and 2020. An inductive approach was used to analyse the students’ responses and to inform in the development of a framework for enhanced students’ participation and voice in the gender activities. From a theoretical perspective, the empirical data sheds light on the interconnections between social and cultural norms, formal education, empowerment activities and understandings of gender equality at the university. Using a feminist participatory action research approach, this study sought to ensure that student voice is given a central role in understanding opportunities to participation and deliberations on how to enhance engagements. This epistemically inclusive approach supports participants to develop a deeper understanding of how gender inequality can shape engagement at the institution, as well as offering opportunities to foster knowledge, skills and agency to recognise that all students, regardless of gender, have the opportunity and responsibility to foster change, and to commit to a shift of unequal power relations through iterative cycles of action and critical reflection.
Keywords: Gender equality; education; engagement; epistemic inclusion; participatory action research, student voice
Authors: Dr. Consolata Chua, Dar es Salaam University (Education). Conso.firstname.lastname@example.org
Catherine Devine, Trinity College Dublin (Geography). email@example.com
Dr. Susan Murphy, Trinity College Dublin (Geography). Susan.firstname.lastname@example.org
Undergraduate Female Leaders in Higher Education: Leadership Identity and Development
This study investigated the development of leadership identity among six female undergraduate leaders in Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs). Using the hexagon theory and motivation to lead theory, the study focused on the personal knowledge, beliefs and actions which female undergraduate student leaders connect to their leadership identity. Furthermore, the study explored the perceived leadership motivational factors for female student leaders in HLIs. The study employed a phenomenological interpretive approach to investigate a lived experience and leadership identity to female student leaders in three selected HLIs. The study has noted the obvious roles played by parents and associates in the families, peers, teachers and religious organizations in leadership identity and development. The role of teachers and peers was highly realized in adolescence stage. Further, the findings revealed that female leaders’ participation in leadership, in most cases, is pushed by their feeling of a sense of duty or responsibility to lead i.e. Social Normative Motives to Lead. The study recommends promoting power within students for social-normative as well as affective identity influence to the young girls within families, in schools, and colleges in order to develop strong committed female leaders.
Cecilia Swai. Lecturer, Dar es Salaam University. email@example.com
Ikupa Moses. Lecturer, Dar es Salaam University. firstname.lastname@example.org
Exploring Gender Equality in Leadership Positions of HEI of Tanzania: Reality and Challenges
This research examines the reasons to explain the under-representation of female academics at senior leadership positions in higher education in Tanzania. Although evident in Higher Education Institutions throughout the world, the specific drivers of under-representation are locally situated and context-dependent, thus requiring embedded case study analysis of institutional contexts, ethos, and progression patterns. This paper shares insight gained through an embedded case study at a large teacher-training college in Tanzania. Using the core academic progression measures of teaching, research, consultancy. The data collected reveals that although male and female academics almost spend a similar amount of time on teaching, research, and consultancy, females remain under-represented within senior leadership and management positions. From the above findings, it seems that women are equally qualified as men with same levels of education, and contribute to the same output, however, the likelihood that they will seek such higher roles is lower.
Keywords: Gender, Education, Leadership, Higher Education, Tanzania
Authors: Anna A. Mwakitalu, School of Education, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. email@example.com
Susan Murphy, School of Natural Sciences (Geography)|Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. Susan.P.Murphy@tcd.ie
Perpetua Urio, Faculty of Education, Dar es Salaam University College of Education, Tanzania. firstname.lastname@example.org
Matumizi ya Methali katika Kujenga Mitazamo kwa Wanawake katika Jamii nchini Tanzania
Lugha kama kipengele cha Utamaduni kina nafasi kubwa ya kujenga au kubomoa fikra, itikadi na juhudi za jamii husika, katika kufanikisha shughuli mbalimbali za kimaendeleo. Methali ni kipengele kimojawapo katika lugha. Hivyo, matumizi yake hudhihirisha namna lugha katika jamii inavyoweza kuangaliwa katika milengo tofauti tofauti. Katika falsafa ya sayansi ya jamii lugha hutazamwa kama kioo cha kumtambulisha mtu katika jamii yake. Mbali ya juhudi kubwa zinazofanywa na Serikali ya Tanzania katika kuleta usawa wa kijinsia katika kufikia malengo ya uchumi wa kati, baadhi ya tamaduni za Kiafrika zimekuwa sehemu ya kikwazo katika kutimiza malengo hayo. Wanawake katika jamii mbalimbali wamekuwa wakifanya kazi kwa juhudi kwa lengo la kujikomboa kiuchumi, kisiasa, kielimu na kijamii, lakini juhudi hizi zimekuwa zikirudishwa nyuma na mila na desturi za Kiafrika zilizopitwa na wakati. Felician (2017) anapendekeza kuwa “Mwanamke na mwanaume wanapaswa kuwa na vipaumbele ambavyo vinaleta mlinganyo sawia maana kushikilia ukale ni ishara ya kurudisha jamii nyuma ya wakati.” Kutokana na utofauti wa tamaduni ziliopo baina ya jamii moja na nyingine upo umuhimu wa kuchunguza jamii nyingine. Makala haya yanajikita katika mlengo lugha na ujinsia katika kuchuguza mtazamo wa wanawake katika athari za matumizi ya lugha kwenye methali katika jamii sita za Kitanzania. Jamii hizo ni zile zenye mfumo dume: Wahehe, Wakuria na Wasukuma, na zile zenye mfumo jike: Warugulu, Wakagulu na Wazaramo. Utafiti huu umetumia data za maktabani zilizokusanywa mwaka (2019) katika jamii hizo sita (6), kama zilivyotajwa hapo juu. Utafiti huu umetumia Nadharia ya Uhalisia ya Goffman (1953). Nadharia hii inaeleza kuwa matumizi ya lugha husawiri uhalisia katika ukamilifu na wakati wake. Uhalisia katika maisha ya jamii unapewa msingi wa uandishi kuhusu uhaalisia na tukio, mhusika na mandhari huelezwa kiuhalisia. Matokeo ya utafiti huu yanaonesha kuwa ukandamizaji wa kijinsia katika jamii nyingi za Kitanzania ni zao la athari za matumizi ya lugha katika jamii, na kile jamii inachokiamini kuwa hakiwezi kubadilika kwa kuwa ni sehemu ya utamaduni wa jamii hiyo.
Maneno Msingi: Utamaduni, Mila na desturi za Kiafrika, Ujinsia, na Utamaduni-jamii
Authors: Mary Zacharia Charwi. Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam
Chuo Kishiriki cha Elimu Dar es Salaam